What Are Drainage Systems And How They Are Arranged
Drainage systems, or outdoor drainage systems, are a collection of structures and elements designed to protect a building from precipitation and remove liquid from the roof of a building to the proper places. Systems are divided into drains of an external organized type and an external unorganized type.
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Outdoor drain organized
Outdoor drain organized is a system installed on the outside of the house. It is understood that the roof is of a pitched type, and its slope is 15% or more. This system includes gutters (their longitudinal slope must be at least 2%) and external downspouts. Let us briefly explain the principle of operation of the system.
The liquid enters the roof slopes, then it enters the gutters, after which it enters the water intake funnels from the gutters. These funnels are usually located near the eaves, and the distance between them is from 12 to 20 meters. From the funnels, the liquid enters the pipes. The place of fixing these pipes is the outer walls of the building. The pipes themselves are directed to a drainage well or a storm sewer (in the absence of such, a large storm barrel can play their role).
The advantages of an outdoor organized drain include the fact that it protects the roof, walls of the house and the foundation from the harmful effects of precipitation in the form of rain.
The disadvantages of an outdoor organized drain include the fact that if snow accumulates in large quantities on the roof, it rolls off from there, and can rip the gutters from their fasteners. To avoid this, it is recommended to install the gutters in such a way that the level of their outer edges does not exceed the level of the plane that continues the slope surface. At the same time, the installation of the gutter is done in such a way that its middle is in line with the vertical that goes from the edge of the cornice drain. In such a case, all of the liquid in the trough can be achieved.
Thus, we examined the structure of the system for removing liquid from the roof, and found out that it consists of the following main parts:
Gutters and pipes differ depending on the shape
Now consider the main types into which external gutters are divided:
- eaves (respectively, they are located along the cornice overhang);
- parapet – they are almost out of use in modern architecture. They are typical for old houses and are located between the parapet walls. They are classified as structural elements of the roof. In accordance with this design, water enters the spillway.
Consider how gutters are classified by shape, which in turn depends on the design of the house and the design of the roof. The most common forms of gutters are:
- square – is used in cases where drainage efficiency is in the first place, since with a square shape of the gutter section it has a large area, and, consequently, a large throughput. This form is used mainly in buildings located in regions with regular heavy rainfall – with heavy rains and heavy snowfalls. It should also be noted that square gutters are typical for roofs of a large area;
- embossed – the use of such a design is typical for buildings of a certain architectural design and shape. By its properties, this form prevents leaves from entering the drain part of the gutter;
- semicircular – used in regions where precipitation is not very intense.
Next, we continue our acquaintance with the system, and move on to drainpipes. They are also classified according to the shape of the section, and it depends on the gutter – their shapes must match. Pipes are also semicircular or square. To give the pipes the ability to bend around the protruding parts of the building, they are supplied complete with elbows that are bent in any of the planes – frontal or lateral.
Drain pipes are located on the outside of the building, usually on the sunny side. It should be noted that the shape of the gutters, and, accordingly, the pipes are influenced by the overall design of the building and its area. In the case of a house area of more than 200 square meters and regular heavy rainfall, the shape is selected square.
Pipes are also classified according to diameter. And the diameter depends on the area of the roof:
- with a roof area up to 30 sq.m. – pipe diameter 80 mm;
- with a roof area of 30 to 50 sq.m. – pipe diameter 90 mm;
- with a roof area from 50 to 125 sq.m. – pipe diameter 100 mm.
Pipes are installed in such a way that the distance from the pipe surface to the wall is at least 30-35 mm. Clamps and pins with grips are used to fasten the pipe to the wall. The pins must meet the requirements of stainless steel, so they are made galvanized or coated with anti-corrosion compounds. The shape of the clamps also corresponds to the shape of the pipe section.
The gutters are attached to the roof with hooks. They, in turn, can also have a different shape, which is determined by the shape of the gutter. The hooks also help to provide the right slope for the water to flow in the gutter towards the funnel. Hooks are also called gutter holders. Fastening is carried out in such a way that it is convenient to clean the gutters from leaves, debris or snow. Learn more about cleaning gutters here https://windowwashingexpert.com/gutter-cleaning/.
Funnels are also part of the outdoor drainage system. They serve to collect liquid.
Among other things, outdoor organized drains are classified depending on the material of manufacture. The first of the most common materials is metal. The role of metal can be – galvanized steel, galvanized steel with a polymer coating, copper, an alloy of titanium and zinc, aluminum. The metal drain, as a rule, is established on metal roofs.
The second material is plastic. Plastic here means unplasticized polyvinyl chloride with the addition of thermal and ultraviolet stabilizers.
Outer drain unorganized
An unorganized outdoor drain is also considered a structure for removing liquid from the roof, but only conventionally it is called a system. Drainage of liquid with such a device occurs due to the slope of the roof. Gutters, funnels and pipes are absent. Such a system involves the construction of a visor over the facade of the building. In accordance with the technical requirements, such houses must be at least 1.5 meters from the sidewalk. In this case, the roof is made of metal tiles, corrugated board, ceramic tiles, and usually it is metal folded or soft pitched.
As an advantage of this system, one can indicate its cheapness, however, this is where the advantages end. This design does not protect the facade, plinth and foundation from liquid, as a result of which they are exposed to destructive influences.
Sometimes, in order to somewhat alleviate the situation, the removal of the cornice is used – at a distance equal to 60 cm from the wall. At the same time, the overhang of the eaves is covered with a special apron based on roofing steel. But the rains can also be oblique, so this device is unreliable.
Thus, from the foregoing, it should be concluded that if there is a choice between an organized and unorganized drain, and the means allow you to choose an organized one, then you should not hesitate to make a choice in favor of the first option.